1. The Hon’ble Supreme court of India in Salem Advocate Bar Assn. v. Union of India [(2005) 6 SCC 344] has held that “It is to be noted that the provisions of Order 6 Rule 17 CPC have been substantially amended by the CPC (Amendment) Act, 2002. Under the proviso no application for amendment shall be allowed after the trial has commenced, unless in spite of due diligence, the matter could not be raised before the commencement of trial.
2. The Hon’ble Supreme court of India in Rajkumar Gurawara (Dead) Thr. L.Rs. vs S.K. Sarwagi And Co. Pvt. Ltd. And Anr. Decided on 14/5/2008 and Judgement can be seen in http://judis.nic.in/supremecourt/chejudis.asp “ It is settled law that the grant of application for amendment be subject to certain conditions, namely, (i) when the nature of it is changed by permitting amendment; (ii) when the amendment would result introducing new cause of action and intends to prejudice the other party; (iii) when allowing amendment application defeats the law of limitation. The plaintiff not only failed to satisfy the conditions prescribed in proviso to Order VI Rule 17 but even on merits his claim is liable to be rejected.”
3. The Hon’ble Supreme court of India in Chander Kanta Bansal vs Rajinder Singh Anand Decided on: 11/03/2008 and Judgement can be seen in http://judis.nic.in/supremecourt/chejudis.asp It is observed by court as follows “ It makes it clear that after the commencement of trial, no application for amendment shall be allowed. However, if it is established that in spite of "due diligence" the party could not have raised the matter before the commencement of trial depending on the circumstances, the court is free to order such application. The words "due diligence" has not been defined in the Code. According to Oxford Dictionary (Edition 2006), the word "diligence" means careful and persistent application or effort. "Diligent" means careful and steady in application to one's work and duties, showing care and effort. As per Black's Law Dictionary (Eighth Edition), "diligence" means a continual effort to accomplish something, care; caution; the attention and care required from a person in a given situation. "Due diligence" means the diligence reasonably expected from, and ordinarily exercised by, a person who seeks to satisfy a legal requirement or to discharge an obligation. According to Words and Phrases by Drain-Dyspnea (Permanent Edition 13A) "due diligence", in law, means doing everything reasonable, not everything possible. "Due diligence" means reasonable diligence; it means such diligence as a prudent man would exercise in the conduct of his own affairs. It is clear that unless the party takes prompt steps, mere action cannot be accepted and file a petition after the commencement of trial.”
4. The Hon’ble Supreme court of India in N.Pandey & Anr. Vs. Swami Keshavprakeshdasji N. & Ors. [2006 (12) SCC 1]. and Judgement can be seen in http://judis.nic.in/supremecourt/chejudis.asp In paragraph 57 of the decision, it was observed as follows :”It is submitted that the date of settlement of issues is the date of commencement of trial.”
5. The Hon’ble Supreme court of India in Baldev Singh & Ors. Vs. Manohar Singh & Anr. [2006 (6) SCC 498]. and Judgement can be seen in http://judis.nic.in/supremecourt/chejudis.asp In paragraph 17 of the decision, it was held and observed as follows : “Before we part with this order, we may also notice that proviso to Order 6 Rule 17 CPC provides that amendment of pleadings shall not be allowed when the trial of the suit has already commenced.
6. The Hon’ble Supreme court of India in South Konkan Distilleries & Anr. Vs Prabhakar Gajanan Naik & Ors.[Decided on 09-09-2008]. and Judgement can be seen in http://judis.nic.in/supremecourt/chejudis.asp it was held and observed as follows : “we are of the view that if a suit was filed on the amended claim, it was an admitted position that the said claim was barred by limitation, the question of allowing the amendment of the written statement and the counter claim, in the facts and circumstances of the case, could not arise at all. Accordingly, the courts below were fully justified in rejecting the application for amendment of the written statement and the counter claim.”
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